Emperor Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius

Justus Calpurnius Piso as M. Annius Verus [II] was the grandfather of Emp. Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius was born in 121 CE and ruled from 161 CE-180 CE.

By his reign, in about 180 CE Emperor Marcus Aurelius had established what the biblical canon would be. However, the family would work to create the first compilation of that canon for about the next 200 years. The selection process was a lengthy one which finally ended when there was almost universal agreement on which books made up the New Testament in the fifth century. Many books went back and forth on and off the list during those four hundred years, depending on who was making the decisions. The royal family members (the descendants of Arrius Piso) had originally been divided upon what language that canon would be in. They did not want what we think of as the Old Testament texts to be in Hebrew, but many of them were thinking of leaving the New Testament texts in Greek. So, at the time of Marcus Aurelius' reign, it was thought by most at the time that the whole new 'bible' that they were creating was to be in Greek.

However, problems arose which made many of them rethink that. One big problem was that what had been written into the scriptures in Greek would be too obvious, such as the family names, etc. So they had to rethink, and the decision was made to translate all of the biblical texts into Latin, which Emperor Constantine had a hand in commissioning, which was then later done by his descendant who wrote as St. Jerome. But the translating of the New Testament into Latin makes no sense if using the current understanding of the history of Christianity, and the languages understood by the majority of people. By 1522, Martin Luther, a German professor of theology, had translated the New Testament into German, as the people could not understand the Latin version, even today, Catholic masses are in Latin.

With regards to Commodus, he was nothing like his father Marcus Aurelius. Marcus was groomed from childhood to be an emperor, and many of his relatives loved him and helped him to learn many things. So, Marcus Aurelius was able to become the "Philosopher Emperor", as he has been called. Commodus however had no interest in the affairs of the state. He had lived a somewhat sheltered life and was spoiled by his parents. He was given virtually anything he wanted, and what he wanted was the pleasures of life as he knew them, wine, women, food, and perhaps, song. Commodus was a sex addict, and although officially he was married to Bruttia Crispina, he kept over 300 concubines and many of them, he got pregnant.

In the genealogy given above, you will notice that Julianus Calpurnius Piso (Annius Verus III), father of Marcus Aurelius, also known in history as Marcus Annius Verus, wrote as 'Timothy', which in Greek is Timotheos (Latin - Timotheus), which means 'honoring (τιμαω) God' (θεοζ). In the New Testament, Marcus Aurelius is honored by Julius Piso (Julius Severus/Servianus), Marcus Aurelius' great uncle, in Revelation. In Revelation XVIII, Verse 16, Julius uses the word 'precious', which is 'Timious' (τιμιω) in Greek, meaning 'of Timothy', as Marcus Aurelius' father wrote as 'Timothy'. But immediately after the Timious, we see the Greek word 'Kai', which is 'and' in Greek, but the Greek I looked the same as the Latin l, so the word Kai could be viewed as the name 'Kal(purnius)'.

emperor marcus aurelius genealogy